What is doublethink?

 

 

Doublethink is the ability to accept two contradictory beliefs at the same time and to believe they are both true. In 1984, the Party uses doublethink as propaganda and psychological manipulation of its leadership and the public. The results are people (or in the novel a society) who lose the ability to form independent thoughts, remaining deceiving peace, because the person is completely unaware of any conflict or contradiction.

Eventually, it becomes possible for the Party to convince the public of anything, even if it’s the exact opposite of what the public already knows to be true, as the Party is able to control your memories, to choose to forget something, as well as to forget about the forgetting process.

Orwell defines doublethink as, ”To know and to not know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions which cancelled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them, to use logic against logic, to repudiate morality while laying claim to it, to believe that democracy is impossible and that the Party was the guardian of democracy. To forget, whatever it was necessary to forget, then to draw it back into memory again at the moment when it was needed, and then promptly to forget it again, and above all, to apply the same process to the process itself.”

Knowledge is force (A theme of 1984)

The meaning of the theme “Knowledge is force” in George Orwell´s “1984” is, that the System in “1984” is in the position to falsify the past and therefore to change the presence and the future.

For exactly that way of controlling the eurasian populatian, a eurasian citizen would not easeally be in the positition to withstand the lies of the System. Apart from that if someone would show resistence they would immediately get rid of him.

The political System of “1984” is only possible because just the system itself knows the truth. What in conclusion means that not only a few persons should have access to informations we have about the human history and nobody should be able to falsify the past. Otherwhise the knowledge will be used to control people and a dystopian vision just like “1984” might happen.

Why “Big Brother”? (English homework)

Almost 50% of the children have brothers or sisters. So many people know what it means to have a brother – to have someone you might hate sometimes, because he probably competes with you sometimes, but if you need him, he will be there for you just because he is your brother. Especially if he is your big brother: He is more grown up and stronger than you and your rivals and is able to protect you well. So why the hell do you call a dictator, a leader of a totalitarian system “Big Brother”?

Well, in “1984” George Orwell uses a lot of antithesises like “War is peace” etc. to underline the twisting of the reality into the reality the government wants and this surpressing, controlling and brainwashing leader is also basically the antithesis of his name – The way he acts is in contrary to the way he presents himself to the citizens and how everyone sees him: As a protector. Someone who is caring about them, who vaporizes the evil ones. And since the leading of the totalitarian system is represented by “Big Brother”, by one subject, the people can put trust in this person. But probably this face that is presented to the people is not even the face of a real person, its just the fictive  incarnation of the collective domination of the inner party.

So Orwell chooses this name to give a frightening proof how successfull totalitarian systems can present themselves as the helping hand, the good guys or the big brother taking care of the people.

English homework: “Surveillance is dangerous” by Brillentraeger1000

 

Themes

Surveillance is dangerous, a theme of George Orwell’s 1984?

George Orwell’s completely book is about Surveillance. It is the top topic. But is his intention to warn about Surveillance? It is definitely a current theme at anytime.

In 1984 we have a lot of different Surveillance situations and systems. The absolutistic system of Oceania is a monitoring state. At the top is an unknown person called Big Brother. All over hang captions with the slogan: „BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU“ (Part 1, Page 3). Big brother create a lot of more systems to observing the society.

Tele screens:

In every room hanging so called „tele-screens“. It is one of the most important way to keeps citizens under surveillance. The Tele-screen is switched on every time. even if it is in the stand by mode. They play propaganda videos the whole day.

Thought Police:

The thought police is authorised to observe every citizen. They have access to all the tele screens and could observe people all the time. The smallest bad thought about the System (thought crime) is a hard punishment. The thought police will catch you and you will be „vaporised“. The thought police also have patrols of surveillance helicopters that fly around peering into people’s windows.

Inner and Outer Party:

In Oceania they have to party: the inner Party, which is a small closed group of people which live in luxury and have more rights as other people. The outer party is made of simple employees. they are strictly monitored. the most of those people works in one of the three ministries.

Children:

The Party use children as spies to control his parents and other citizens. The youth league educate children in supervision of Big Brother. Parents just see her children for a short time at the whole day.

New speak:

Also „New Speak“ is used for controlling and observing the society. The language replace complex words and delete „danger words“ (for the absolutistic system). An example: We have three Words: bad, good and awesome. In newspeak these words are: ungood, good and double good. They just brainwashing the citizens.

All these systems just serve the system of Big Brother. I think „surveillance is dangerous“ is definitely the top-theme of George Orwell’s 1984. The book is written in 1948 and the 2. World War was just over. George Orwell went a step further and ask himself which would be worse. Therefore he has shown us this story. In my opinion it is a signal to the future.

A democracy as untruthful as its published facts – A comment on Kellyanne Conway`s alternative facts

Facts don’t lie, but Trumps facts are lies.

Given that Donald Trump has been the president of the USA for only 3 months and doesn’t show a sign of changing tactics,

it is more important then ever that especially the media and every single one of us remind each other every day that the world has facts, that we don’t get to create the truth.

 

Meanwhile there are many different statistics who give an overview about how often, about what and in which way Trump spreads lies. One says that in 62 days of mandate, there was only one day where Donald Trump told no falsehoods. What happened on that day, was he ill, did he oversleep that day?

 

To most of us it is obvious that Donald Trump is a serial liar. However, I think many of us are not always sure what this means for us practically, especially since his lies are often focused on silly issues that don’t seem to matter. The perfect example of this is the fact that Trump claimed that the crowd at the swear – in ceremony stretched down the National Mall to the Washington Monument and had in total more than 1 million people, which was a falsehood. Even independent observers reported that the attendance was far smaller than the crowd at the first Obama inauguration.

This political strategy is not just about spreading lies, in order that eventually the citizens lose the clear view about what is the truth and what is actually false. To further the manipulation, Kellyanne Conway, the Advisor of Donald Trump used the euphemism “alternative facts” to describe the untruths given to the press, when she was confronted by that in an interview. This shows how Trump and his party are putting themselves in a good-looking position, even when its obvious that they tell falsehoods, that they are ignoring the truth, masking there lies as “alternative facts” and putting there focus on operating with opinions and not with facts. That makes it easy for them to argue, because opinions can´t be unmasked as untruths.

The alarming part is not the lie itself, but given the fact, that the first statement from the new president to the nation is a falsehood. And since that day nothing changed, his lies aren’t surprising anymore, because it happens every single day. Actually disinformation was something for dictatorships and failed states, for example a totalitarian state as in George Orwells “1984”, until now… Today a nation – as a democracy – has to deal with this problem and with a president, who´s policy is characterized through ignorance about the truth. “Which is not a virtue or challenging political correctness, that´s just not knowing what you are talking about” Obama once said.

 

The USA will depend more than ever on the independent press – finding the truth, reporting it, and holding Trump accountable for his lies. They have to confront the public with that everyday, to openly call him a liar and indicate his lies every time.

This will be a challenge and exhausting but necessary, because it´s the only way of not loosing the consciousness about what is the truth and what is actually a falsehood.

 

Trump can´t get away with saying and doing whatever he wants. When that happens, the USA can no longer be called a democracy.

 

Characterization Wilson Smith

In the following text, i`ll describe the Protagonist from the novel „1984“, written by George Orwell, who´s name is Wilson Smith. This characterization is based on the hole book but not only the first three chapters. That results from the fact that i have read the hole book.

Orwell’s primary goal in 1984 is to demonstrate the terrifying possibilities of totalitarianism. The reader experiences the nightmarish world that Orwell envisions through the eyes of the protagonist, Winston. His personal tendency to resist the stifling of his individuality, and his intellectual ability to reason about his resistance, enables the reader to observe and understand the harsh oppression that the Party, Big Brother, and the Thought Police institute. Whereas Julia is untroubled and somewhat selfish, interested in rebelling only for the pleasures to be gained, Winston is extremely pensive and curious, desperate to understand how and why the Party exercises such absolute power in Oceania. Winston’s long reflections give Orwell a chance to explore the novel’s important themes, including language as mind control, psychological and physical intimidation and manipulation, and the importance of knowledge of the past.

Apart from his thoughtful nature, Winston’s main attributes are his rebelliousness and his fatalism. Winston hates the Party passionately and wants to test the limits of its power; he commits innumerable crimes throughout the novel, ranging from writing “DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER” in his diary, to having an illegal love affair with Julia, to getting himself secretly sneaked into the anti-Party Brotherhood. The effort Winston puts into his attempt to achieve freedom and independence ultimately underscores the Party’s devastating power. By the end of the novel, Winston’s rebellion is revealed as playing into O’Brien’s campaign of physical and psychological torture, transforming Winston into a loyal subject of Big Brother.

One reason for Winston’s rebellion, and eventual downfall, is his sense of fatalism, his intense paranoia about the Party and his overriding belief that the Party will eventually catch and punish him. As soon as he writes “DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER” in his diary, Winston is positive that the Thought Police will quickly capture him for committing a thoughtcrime. Thinking that he is helpless to evade his doom, Winston allows himself to take unnecessary risks, such as trusting O’Brien and renting the room above Mr. Charrington’s shop. Deep down, he knows that these risks will increase his chances of being caught by the Party; he even admits this to O’Brien while in prison. But because he believes that he will be caught no matter what he does, he convinces himself that he must continue to rebel. Winston lives in a world in which legitimate optimism is an impossibility; lacking any real hope, he gives himself false hope, fully aware that he is doing so.

Easy “life changing” tips to quotate

First of all you want the reader to be interested in your text, don’t you? A big part of using quotation marks is to implement the quotations into your own sentences!
So now you´re asking yourself: “How do I use those weird quotation marks?”
In order to use them, you have to learn some rules…

Your opinion with a quotation backing it up:

Example:
And because Danny says “I´m not gonna fall!”, it turns out that he is too self-confident (p.3, l. 5-6).
In this example the own material is clearly in the foreground… Which is actually unavoidable if you want to quotate in the most interesting way. If you want to be more transparent with your quotations, you should always refer to the text by adding page and the line number.
You can practice this as in the example above. But it can end in a mess, when you refer to more than one line.
The worst case could look like this: 
And because Danny says “I´m not gonna fall!”, it turns out that he is “too self-confident” (p.3, l. 5-6), (p. 5, l. 21).

The best possiblity to “dodge that bullet”, is to do as the following example:

And because Danny says “I´m not gonna fall!” (p.3, l. 5-6), it turns out that he is “too self-confident” (p. 5, l. 21).

Fun fact:

If you want to use unappropriate words in a factual text, you can use “the power of quotations”.
Example:
In Sara´s opinion Danny has a “humiliating” car (p. 15, l. 24).